Comparison of the stelae of wsrimn (Fisher Collection, Detroit) and of ddwsbk (Louvre C240 and BM566) of Dynasty XII


The 12th Dynasty (Middle Egytian) judicial system was surprisingly modern in its approach and composition, but our knowledge is assembled by a process of deduction. Most of the key evidentiary sources are testimonial stelae which list the titles held by senior officials during their lifetimes. The nature of an individual’s role in the judicial process can be postulated from the combination of titles held, in turn allowing a picture of the overall operation of kingly justice to emerge. “The paper considers the titles and history of two such individuals, comparing and contrasting the titles they held to build a picture which reveals the existence of investigative judicial processes. [more…]

Figure 3 - Rosette and Scorpion, Ashmolean Museum

Who Is King Scorpion?


The ‘Scorpion’ Mace-head is one of the most significant objects from the main deposit at Hierakonpolis. Unlike the Narmer Mace-head, it is not a complete mace-head but only part of one. Apart from the dominant figure after whom the palette is named, the surrounding scenes are partial; however excellently these have been conserved. This makes the object even more enigmatic and difficult to interpret than usual in the context of the development of Early Dynastic royal iconography. [more…]

This article re-examines the evidence and suggests an alternative identification for King Scorpion. [more…]

Figure 1. Map of Sudan. Courtesy: Norman B Leventhal Map Centre at the Boston Public Library, Creative Commons

The contributions of A.J. Arkell to eastern Saharan prehistory


Anthony John Arkell (1898 – 1979) was a pioneer of Sudanese archaeology, a precise and conscientious surveyor and excavator whose publications are still invaluable today. His work provided the framework within which conversations about the prehistory of the Sudan are discussed. When he returned to live and work in England Arkell was responsible for restoring the collections of the Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, its contents having been packed into 800 boxes during the Second World War. He went on to research and write about the Egyptian Predynastic, helping to revive interest in the pre-Pharaonic period. Anthony Arkell’s contribution to the archaeology of the Eastern Sahara is explored with reference to both his own publications and to comments made by other researchers about the range and value of his work. [more…]